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COURSE_ASSIGNMENT_TITLE >> 9. Прочитайте статью «Прояснение слов», раздел «Шаги прояснения слова».

ПРОЯСНЕНИЕ СЛОВ

Непонятое слово будет оставаться непонятым до тех пор, пока человек не прояснит его значение. Как только человек понял его полностью, можно сказать, что оно прояснено.

Процедуры, используемые для нахождения и прояснения слов, которые человек не понял в процессе изучения чего-либо, называются прояснением слов. В первую очередь нужно усвоить точную процедуру, используемую при прояснении любого непонятого слова или символа, которые могут встретиться вам при чтении или изучении чего-либо. Эта процедура используется во всей технологии прояснения слов.

Шаги прояснения слова

1. Во время чтения держите под рукой словарь, чтобы с его помощью можно было прояснить любое непонятое слово или символ, которые вам встретятся. Можно найти простой, но хороший словарь, который не содержит в дефинициях слов другие сложные слова, которые вам нужно будет прояснять.

2. Когда вы встречаете слово или символ, которого не понимаете, первое, что нужно сделать, — это взять словарь и быстро просмотреть дефиниции, чтобы найти ту, которая подходит в вашем контексте. Прочитайте эту дефиницию и составляйте предложения с этим словом в данном значении, пока у вас не сложится чёткий концепт этого значения слова (непосредственное понятие о нём). Для этого может потребоваться составить десять или более предложений.

3. Затем проясните все остальные дефиниции этого слова, составляя предложения с этим словом в каждой дефиниции, до тех пор пока у вас не появится чёткое понимание каждой дефиниции.

Если слово имеет несколько различных дефиниций, нельзя ограничиваться пониманием этого слова только в одной дефиниции и называть его «понятым». Вы должны быть в состоянии понять это слово, когда позднее оно встретится вам в другом значении.

Однако не проясняйте технические или специальные дефиниции (математические, биологические и т.д.), или устаревшие (более не используемые), или архаичные дефиниции (которые использовались очень давно и вышли из широкого употребления), если только это слово не используется в одной из этих дефиниций в том контексте, в котором вы его не поняли. Прояснение таких дефиниций может привести к тому, что человеку придётся прояснять много других слов в этих дефинициях, и это очень сильно замедлит его прогресс в обучении.

4. Следующее, что нужно сделать, — это прояснить происхождение слова (объяснение того, откуда первоначально произошло это слово). Это поможет вам понять суть данного слова.

5. В большинстве словарей приводятся идиомы, в которые входит данное слово. Идиомы — это фразы или выражения, смысл которых нельзя понять исходя из обычных значений составляющих их слов. Например, «ходить на голове» — это русская идиома, означающая «очень сильно шалить, шуметь, озорничать, нарушая дозволенное (обычно о детях)». В языках довольно много слов используется в составе идиом, и эти идиомы обычно приводятся в словаре после дефиниций самого слова. Если для слова, которое вы проясняете, в словаре приводятся идиомы, их тоже нужно прояснить.

6. Для того чтобы понять слово полностью, проясните все остальные данные о нём, приведённые в словаре: примечания о его употреблении, синонимы и т.д. (Синонимы — слова, которые имеют похожие, но не одинаковые значения, например «худой» и «тонкий».)

7. Если в дефиниции проясняемого слова встречается непонятое слово или символ, его необходимо сразу же прояснить, используя ту же самую процедуру, а затем нужно вернуться к проясняемой дефиниции. (Условные сокращения и символы, используемые в словаре, обычно приводятся в его начале.) Однако если вы обнаруживаете, что тратите массу времени на прояснение слов в самих дефинициях, то вам следует взять более простой словарь. С помощью хорошего словаря вы сможете прояснить слово без необходимости прояснять при этом множество других слов.

Пример прояснения слова
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Слова следует прояснять именно так, как изложено выше. Когда слова поняты, может состояться общение, а когда есть общение, можно понять любой предмет.